Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:100:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:906;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:134:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:121:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:130:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:121:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:154:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter_boolean_operator::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:138:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_boolean_operator.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:151:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter_term_node_tid::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:143:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/modules/taxonomy/views_handler_filter_term_node_tid.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:102:\"Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options()\";s:5:\"%file\";s:126:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:130:\"Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:116:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:126:\"Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:116:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:0;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:100:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/contrib-stable/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:906;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:78:\"Non-static method PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:103:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/packages/PEAR/ErrorStack.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:983;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:212:\"Declaration of CRM_Core_Error::singleton() should be compatible with & PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton($package, $msgCallback = false, $contextCallback = false, $throwPEAR_Error = false, $stackClass = \'PEAR_Error...\')\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:52;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:78:\"Non-static method PEAR_ErrorStack::singleton() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:625;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:74:\"Non-static method PEAR::setErrorHandling() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:94:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Config.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:183;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:117:\"Declaration of CRM_Utils_System_Drupal6::cmsRootPath() should be compatible with CRM_Utils_System_Base::cmsRootPath()\";s:5:\"%file\";s:103:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Utils/System/Drupal6.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:41;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:82:\"Non-static method CRM_Core_Config::isUpgradeMode() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:105:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/ConfigSetting.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:199;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:82:\"Non-static method CRM_Core_Config::isUpgradeMode() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:105:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/BAO/ConfigSetting.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:228;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:74:\"Non-static method PEAR::setErrorHandling() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:532;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:74:\"Non-static method PEAR::setErrorHandling() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:567;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './archive_cnu/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:74:\"Non-static method PEAR::setErrorHandling() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/sites/cnu.civicactions.net/modules/civicrm/CRM/Core/Error.php\";s:5:\"%line\";i:567;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cnu.org/cnu-salons/2013/08/sprawl-example-libertarian-paternalism', '', '47.102.144.120', 1705550311) in /var/www/archive.cnu.org/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135
Is Sprawl An Example of Libertarian Paternalism? | Congress for the New Urbanism

Is Sprawl An Example of Libertarian Paternalism?

MLewyn's picture

One widely-publicized attempt to find a middle ground between laissez-fair and overregulation is  "libertarian paternalism": the idea that (in the words of New York Times columnist David Brooks), "Government doesn’t tell you what to do, but it gently biases the context so that you find it easier to do things" favored by government.  For example, a state governnment could design forms making organ donation the "default option" for driver's license applicants, so one would have to consciously opt out of organ donation. 

Much of what I've read about libertarian paternalism seems to assume that this is something new.  But in fact, suburban sprawl has always involved more than a whiff of libertarian paternalism.

By deciding where to build highways, government gently biased Americans in favor of suburbia.  A late 20th-century American could still live in the city, but why bother when government was building new highways to make it easier to live in the suburbs?  And if the majority of housing is accessible by government-built roads but not by buses, isn't government making driving the default option? 

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